Life Expectancy of a USB Flash Drive

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USB flash drives are great to use for storing digital files and are replacing CDs & DVDs as the preferred storage media of choice.

The advantages of flash drives is that they are portable, durable, and have incredible storage capacity (ranges from 64MB to 256GB as of 2010). Furthermore, they are able to retain the memory even after the power is turned off. But does the memory last forever though? Should you use them to store important documents and files? How long do they last?

If you simply write data to a USB flash drive and put it away in a safe place for 10 years, it will work again and all the data will still be there.

But if you continue to use it over and over again, it will definitely wear out eventually.

USB Flash Drives Have Finite Number of Write/Erase Cycles

The life expectancy of a USB Flash Drive can be measured by the number of write or erase cycles. USB flash drives can withstand between 10,000 to 100,000 write/erase cycles, depending on the memory technology used.

When the limit is reached, some portion of the memory may not function properly, leading to lost of data and corruption.

Of course, the flash drive’s life can also end prematurely if you abuse it or subject it to extreme environmental conditions. Additionally, if low quality memory components are used, the flash drives can fail at a much earlier time.

Beware of unknown brands, as they may use low quality components and cut corners in the manufacturing processes in order to keep cost low. If you are looking for high quality usb flash drives, find vendors that use only grade A memory and have ISO-9001:2008 certified factories.

Should You Use Flash Drives to Store Important Files?

The best usage of flash drives is to copy and transfer files from one computer to another. If you want to use it to store important files such as family photos and videos, it is recommended to make duplicate copies.

Caring for Your Flash Drive

To prolong the life of your flash drive and ensure that it operates properly for years to come, here are some precautions to follow:

  • When not using the flash drive, be sure to cover it with a cap to prevent the accumulation of dusts and contaminants on the contacts.
  • Do not expose your flash drive to harsh conditions, such as extreme temperatures and humidity.
  • Never yank the flash drive out of the USB port while it is still in operation. Also, you should “Eject” the drive (Do a right click on the USB drive and select “Eject”) before removing it from your computer.
  • Do not leave it plugged to the computer for prolonged period of time. If you do not use it, just unplug it from your computer.

flashbay Author: Peter Cardin
53 Comments | Leave yours
Rock Normand | 22 Feb, 2013
Hi there
It would have been nice to know the theoritical length of data retention for the stick sitting in the safe. A million years?
Sam Sanchez, Flashbay | 22 Feb, 2013
Hi Rock,

We reckon at least 60 to 80 years if left in a safe in the perfect environment. Over these time periods I think oxidation would be the rate determining step to failure. But from real world test, as this technology is new, 10 years is certainly attainable.

Robert Bystrom | 19 Feb, 2014
If I had a 64GB USB 3.0, made in 2013, and I have it almost always plugged in, as I use it for Readyboost 24/7 wherever I go, how long should I expect the drive to work?

Drive is Kingston DataTraveler HyperX 3.0 64GB
Monica , Flashbay | 20 Feb, 2014
Hi Robert,

According to the Windows ReadyBoost team you should get more than 10 years usage out of a flash drive used with their technology but unfortunately we can't comment on your specific model. 

However, we can certainly say that all Flashbay flash drives come with a 10 year warranty and are compatible with Windows ReadyBoost.

jonathanfgh | 14 Mar, 2014
I have had many hard drives fail but never a USB, yet .............
Movie Viewer | 23 May, 2014
1.  If I have really important files to store for indefinite period of time, what media would you recommend:  a choice of external hard-drives, pen-drives, DVD+/-Rs, DVD+/-RWs?
Thank you.
Monica , Flashbay | 23 May, 2014

Thank you for your message.

The lifespan of storage media can vary depending on a range of factors. The most important thing to do when storing important information is to preserve the storage device under optimal conditions.

The degradation level of flash memory / pen-drives is linked to the number of write cycles, which is typically around 100,000, and more than enough for average use. Also, as flash drives don't use magnetic fields to store data they aren't susceptible to magnets – making a flash memory safe and long-lasting devices for storing important files and documents.
Many thanks,
Monica at Flashbay
Jesse | 15 Sep, 2014

one where you say you will continue it over and over again then it will wear out, it meant if i use it for 7 days a week and 24 hours then it will wear out? what about Every Sundays like today?
Chris , Flashbay | 15 Sep, 2014
Hi Jesse,

If you're only using your Flash Drive once a week it will serve you well for many years to come. Remember, as mentioned in the article, it's important to use a Flash Drive supplier that uses 'Grade A Memory' and you obviously shouldn't subject the Flash Drive to any harsh conditions such as high temperatures or humidity. This will ensure a long life for your Flash Drive. 

We always use Grade A memory and all our Flash Drives come with a 10 year warranty.

Many thanks,

Chris at Flashbay
Andy | 13 Oct, 2014
Hi, Flashbay team. After reading your informative item I'm a bit concerned, as I'm using a memory stick for my diary and other important documents. I recently lost a lot of important work, as I'd been using floppy discs, and a data transfer wasn't successful in retrieving all the data. It makes me think of returning to hand-written notes and a typewriter. Is it a good idea to continue writing daily to my 64GB flash drive (Phillips), for example?
Chris , Flashbay | 13 Oct, 2014
Hi Andy,

Thanks for getting in touch.

We wouldn't recommend going back to the hand-written notes and typewriter. However, what we would recommend is 'backing up' important files and documents – i.e making copies of your important files. As with other technology (or notepads for that matter) there is always a possibility that the hardware (or pages) may get damaged, especially if not cared for properly. 

We use the best quality parts for all of our USB Flash Drives and we’d like to think that your Phillips Flash Drive is made with similar quality and care. As such, your Flash Drive should serve you well for many years if you take care of it.


Chris at Flashbay
Troy | 01 Nov, 2014
Hello, You only mentioned write cycles which causes wear on the drive. Do read cycles have the same effect on the drive? If I install OS (such as linux) on a flash drive and use it as a boot drive. It will be left running 24/7, and it will do reading most of the time after initial setup. How long will the drive lasts? Thanks
Chris , Flashbay | 03 Nov, 2014
Hi Troy, 

Thanks for the comment. In short we estimate 10 read operations to be equivalent to 1 write operation in terms of wear to the NAND flash memory. 

In your specific use case, the retention of the flash drive will depend on:

i) Memory type (SLC, MLC, TLC):

Single level cell (SLC) NAND will have the best data retention. It is subjected less 'read disturb' than MLC or TLC. However SLC NAND flash  is much more expensive than MLC or TLC NAND flash.

A read disturb occurs when a cell that is not being read receives elevated voltage stress and can occasionally result in a bit flip. The probability of read disturb is much lower than is a write disturb.

ii) Flash management

The controller chip does a lot of work to reduce the wear on NAND flash by employing the following techniques: Wear-levelling algorithms, bad block management, error detection and correction, write amplification and over provisioning.

We generally use controllers made by Silicon Motion (SMI) which have excellent flash management. If you buy a flash drive which is much bigger than your data storage requirement you will also benefit from better wear levelling than a drive with little free space.

Our advice would be to purchase a high-quality Flash Drive and run your chosen Operating System from there. It might cost you slightly more but it will be worth it.  People have been running Operating Systems from Flash Drives for quite a while now so there's no reason to think your Flash Drive will stop working after a couple years - if you purchase one with high-quality parts!

Kind Regards,

Chris at Flashbay
Luis , IUAV | 16 Nov, 2014
Hi, flashbay team

I am a student of Industrial Design from IUAV Univeristy of Venice.

I'm researching the subject of the Life Cycle Assessment of flash drives.

I would be particularly grateful if you could tell me where your production sites are located;
if you use one or more production sites; where the raw materials come from;
and any further information about the energy consumed in production, the amount of water used and any production waste.

If it does not break any confidentiality clauses, I would be very grateful if you could tell us the overall production cost or unit cost.

Chris , Flashbay | 17 Nov, 2014
Hi Luis,

Thanks for contacting us. We'd be happy to help answer your questions.
Can you please contact me via my email address below? I can then respond to all of your questions.


hurairah | 21 Nov, 2014
hey, does a USB is a volatile memory? as u said it can take up to 10years of storage. ans me if yes then why? if not then why?
Chris , Flashbay | 21 Nov, 2014
Hi Hurairah, 

Thanks for contacting us.

Like most models of Flash Drive out there, our drives are non-volatile which means that once data is written to the memory the drive does not need a power source to retain the data on the drive. Volatile memory units do require power, usually provided by a battery. 
The exact period of time that data will be retained on a drive will vary depending on how much use the drive has had and how it is stored in the intervening time but in general 10 years is a good guide. 

I hope this helps answer your question.


hurairah | 24 Nov, 2014
Thankyou chris,
im a student of information technology and one of my professor told me that USB
is volatile memory to some extent because data will lost after a period of time if we dnt plug it on system for a long time. and also because USB cels need charge to keep data but when they dnt get charge data will be lost or corrupted. 
thanks again for your advise :)
Shelly | 23 Apr, 2015
You were talking about write and erase, but what if I use the device only to view pictures? I have a USB with pictures on it, but I only ever view them alone and never add new ones. I do tend to leave the device in my computer for hours at a time, though. Given this information, how long do you think a USB used in this way will last?
Chris , Flashbay | 23 Apr, 2015
Hi Shelly,
Thanks for getting in touch.
If you only use your USB Flash Drive for viewing pictures it should last for well over 10 years. This is assuming that you look after your Flash Drive as mentioned above.
This also assumes that your Flash Drive is from a reputable brand, like Flashbay, and that high-quality components have been used to build the drive.

Of course - always remember to keep a backup of your pictures on another medium to ensure they are safe no matter what happens to the Flash Drive. 
I hope this helps.
Many thanks,
Chris at Flashbay
SF | 23 Jun, 2015
How long in years will a USB live, if only one writing session is done, for archive purpose, or for making a music album on it, when will the data decay?
Chris , Flashbay | 23 Jun, 2015

Thanks for getting in touch.

Assuming that your Flash Drive is made from high-quality parts like the ones we use, it will last for well over 15 - 20 years.

This is also assuming that you store your Flash Drive in a safe and protected environment and don’t expose it to any harsh elements such as high temperatures or magnets.

I hope this helps answer your question.

Many thanks,

Chris at Flashbay
SF | 23 Jun, 2015
Thank you for your help.
I am trying to figure out the safest and most efficient way to back up music albums that were released on CD-Rs, as they can decau really quickly.
Rahul , Steria | 06 Jul, 2015
I intend to run a cloned OS , Ubuntu 14 LTS, cloned using CloneZilla, from a USB Flash drive. Given that OS running would lead to many many read write cycles than the usual, I want to expected life expectancy in years or does it get reduced to months for the case when we need to run a cloned OS from a USB Flash drive
Chris , Flashbay | 06 Jul, 2015
Hi Rahul,

Thanks for getting in touch.

Assuming that your USB Flash Drive is made from high-quality parts, like the ones we use, your Flash Drive should serve you well for many years rather than many months, even if you're using it to run a cloned Operating System.

This also assumes that you store your Flash Drive in a safe area and don't expose it to any high temperatures.

Many thanks,

Chris at Flashbay
Rahul Saini, Steria | 07 Jul, 2015
Thanks Chris,
Could you also let know if it USB 2.0 or USB 3.0 Flash drive have any effect on running a cloned Ubuntu OS from it ? Will USB 2.0 performance be noticeably lesser than USB 3.0 for running a cloned OS off the Flash drive ? Any performance test result links pointed out are very much welcome !!!
Chris , Flashbay | 07 Jul, 2015
Hi Rahul,

Your operating system will likely make a high quantity of small read and writes.

There are two main factors determine the speed of this data transfer: The interface (USB2.0 or USB3.0) and speed at which the NAND flash memory can be read/written to. The read/write speed is influenced by many factors such as whether your memory is MLC/SLC, whether you have more than 1 chip (and if so, whether the controller supports multiple read/write channels)

For most flash drives the performance bottleneck is the memory, rather than the interface, so USB3.0 offers little noticeable benefit. If you buy a high quality/performance flash drive, whose memory is optimised for quick data transfer, then will you see additional speed benefit with USB3.0 over USB2.0.

Many thanks,

Chris at Flashbay.
Tim Stevens | 21 Sep, 2015
Hi Flashbay
If a flash drive fails after, say, 10 years, does it simply stop working, or does it begin to fail in ways that are noticeable?  I guess what I'm asking is will I get any prior notice that the drive is going to fail?
Chris , Flashbay | 21 Sep, 2015
Hi Tim,

Thanks for getting in touch with us.

It depends on what exactly is wrong with the Flash Drive and what elements it has been exposed to. However, some general areas to watch out for are:

1) Excessively slow upload and download times when trying to use your Flash Drive

2) The 'USB Device not recognised' message is appearing more often on your computer or laptop 

3) The Flash Drive is showing empty folders or is losing data despite you saving data onto it.

4) Warning errors about being unable to read or write to the device

If any or all of the above points start to happen frequently it may mean your Flash Drive is about to stop working.

As we say to all of our customers, if you care for your Flash Drive and keep it in a safe, dry place it should serve you for well over 10 years.

I hope this helps answer your question.

Many thanks,

Chris at Flashbay
Tim Stevens | 22 Sep, 2015
Hi Chris
Thanks for swift response.  Happy to note that my flash drives probably won't die overnight!

Noam Preil | 03 Nov, 2015
Hi FlashBay.

A few months ago I purchased a SanDisk 32GB USB 3.0 device, and due to my computer's hard drive breaking I have installed Debian 8.2 on it. Due to errors at different points in time, I have needed to reinstall the system around 3 times. If I run a small server off of it, mostly accessed by myself - although occasionally I give the IP address to a friend to help me debug it, as well as streaming music with Spotify as well as common use (internet browsing, music, document writing, image editing, etc.), how long could I expect it to last?

Do 3.0 devices last longer than 2.0? 

I have installed many packages including chromium, abiword, gnumeric, nodejs, npm, wine, as well as two desktops, and I was wondering if the USB would last longer if I don't use the desktops and just stick with a window manager?

Also, I find it amusing that a 14 year old who has switched schools 7 times in the past 3 years seems to have better grammar than most of the other people who have written comments on here.
Chris , Flashbay | 04 Nov, 2015
Hi Noam,

Thanks for getting in touch.

If you keep your Flash Drive in a safe, dry area and don't expose it to high temperatures it should last you well over 10 years. That's assuming that your Flash Drive is made from the same high-quality parts that we use here at Flashbay.

Regarding your second question. A 3.0 device won't necessarily last any longer than a 2.0 device. The 3.0 device simply enables faster data transfer rates - as you will no doubt know.

Regarding your final question. The USB Flash Drive will last longer if it's not always being used to download/upload packages onto your desktop or laptop. You can search for tips on how to minimise logging and disk writes to extend the life of the drive. Downloading packages shouldn't cause a problem but operating systems write a lot of data to disk in routine operation and that should be minimised when running from a flash drive to help ensure the drive lasts as long as expected. 

I hope this helps answer your questions.

Many thanks,

Chris at Flashbay
Noam Preil | 05 Nov, 2015

Thank you for getting back to me. Actually, the laptop I have now is from 2003, and so while a modern computer boots from the USB in under 15 seconds (while Windows on the hard drive takes over four minutes), on this computer it can take up to a minute to start up, not including the ten seconds to start an X Server when I need one.

As such, I have not really noticed a huge speed difference (this is probably also because while the device is 3.0, the port is 2.0). 

This leads to my next question. Does running it on this computer in theory increase the number of read/write cycles due to the fact that it is slower?

Lastly (for now), what exactly is a write cycle? Is it a KB, 512 B, or is it a set time, not size?
Chris , Flashbay | 05 Nov, 2015
Hi Noam,

No problem at all. Happy to help.

Regarding your first question: Your laptop's age shouldn't affect the need for more (or less) read and write cycles. The number of read / write operations would be similar or the same regardless of speed, it's just that more of them would happen in a shorter timeframe for a faster device or computer. 

Regarding your second question: A write cycle is purely the process of writing or erasing data to a specific part of memory - in this case, your USB Flash Drive. Generally speaking, the number of write cycles performed is dependant on the size of the data you're writing or erasing and the way that the drive is formatted and the time it takes depends on the speed of the drive and the computer. A slower drive or computer, with the same formatting and performing the same operation as a faster one, would still need to perform the same number of cycles but it would generally need a longer period of time to finish the job.

Many thanks,

Chris at Flashbay
Gayle Donaldson, Avon Independent Sales Rep | 02 Dec, 2015
Thank you for taking my questions.

1---am receiving a write-protected msg when trying to update my files. Read-only attributes were applied to files unbeknownst to me. My backup files also have read-only in their properties, but the error only began this week. My bookkeeping worked fine 2 weeks ago.

2---with my business cycle being 2 weeks, I am only updating files every 1-2 weeks, adding new customer sales data to spreadsheets or saving additional pdf files. Am writing a revised file rather than a new one with the added data, so is that more wear on the flash drive?

3---Have had the flash drive inserted when restarting. Does that compromise the flash drive? I am not booting from it.

4---If I format the apparently compromised flash drive, will it work properly again? 

5---Would the culprit be a virus or malware?
Chris , Flashbay | 03 Dec, 2015
Hi Gayle,

Thanks for getting in touch. Happy to help.

1) This message can be caused by a few different factors (including a possible virus). Our friends at 'Make Use Of' have a very handy guide to help with your first question:

2) Each time you save a file down to your Flash Drive it counts as a 'write' cycle. However, from what you've described below this would have very little 'wear and tear' on the drive.

3) I would always advise to 'safely remove your USB Flash Drive' after each use. This way it cannot be corrupted when restarting your laptop or computer.

4) Formatting is an option. However,  I suggest 'scanning' your USB Flash Drive for viruses using your installed virus software. I suggest doing this step before formatting the drive.

5) Quite possibly. The scan should reveal any viruses or malware.

Many thanks,

Chris at Flashbay
Nik | 05 Jan, 2016
Hi,Flash bay team.....
I want to know if the Flash drives has memory Storage cycle of 10 years,then which is more suitable for Backups Storages for longer periods ?DVD or Flash Drives 

Thank you
Chris , Flashbay | 05 Jan, 2016
Hi Nik,

Thanks for your question.

Your Flash Drive will last you for more than 10 years. This is assuming that it’s made from high-quality parts like we use here at Flashbay. 

It also assumes that your Flash Drive isn’t exposed to any poor conditions such as high temperatures or moisture.

As such, we would always recommend a USB Flash Drive over a CD/DVD to store your data.

Many thanks,

Chris at Flashbay
Saboor Siasang, Personal | 18 May, 2016
Hi Chris and the Flashbay Team,
First of all, appreciate your detailed replies to every question here. I immensly benefited from reading all queries and answers. My question: After working on an existing file, which of the following two options would be safer with usb/ flash-drive: (1) replace a document, photo, song, files, folder with the newer version, or (2) save-as the edited version of foregoing examples using 'different name' and deleting the older one?
Chris , Flashbay | 19 May, 2016
Hi Saboor,

Thanks for the kind feedback.

Both options should be fine. However, if you want to be extra careful you should use option 2.

Using this option gives you a 'safety net'. You can check that your new file is ok and that you haven't accidentally overwritten anything before deleting the old file.

I hope this helps.

Many thanks,

Chris at Flashbay
Gabriele | 13 Jul, 2016
Hi Chris,

I am not a computer whiz, have very limited computer knowledge, but am wondering about whether a USB memory stick that was used on a Windows Vista OS can also be used on the new Windows 10 OS, once all the information on it has been deleted.
Chris , Flashbay | 14 Jul, 2016
Hi Gabriele,

Thanks for the question.

Your memory stick will work on your computer with Windows 10.

Many thanks,

Rod Fielding | 25 Oct, 2016
Every time I use a USB flash drive for the first time, Windows takes a moment ot two to go through its 'install new hardware' routine but it never needs to do this again - even if it's a long time before the drive is used again and many more new drives have been introduced to the computer in the meantime. So,Windows obviously stores information about each new drive and holds it for a long time - or permanently. My questions are: (a) where is this information stored {I'd like to look and see how much there is] and (b) is there any limit to the number of new drives that can be introduced and registered by Windows in this way? I would guess that I have introduced over 50 flash drives to my PC over the last 18months. I use XP on a machine that is not connected to the Internet.
Ali , Aramco | 26 Oct, 2016
If I buried a flash in a time capsule, would it survive? For how long? What do I seal it with to increase the probability of it surviving? (I don't expect you to know the answer but might as well ask).

thank you,

Ali , Aramco | 26 Oct, 2016
If I buried a flash in a time capsule, would it survive? For how long? What do I seal it with to increase the probability of it surviving? (I don't expect you to know the answer but might as well ask).

thank you,

Chris , Flashbay | 26 Oct, 2016
Hi Rod,

Thanks for your question.

a) This information is stored in the registry, usually in the key HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Enum\USBSTOR 

Also, applications exist which can show you a listing of every USB drive ever connected to the computer (I will directly email you an example of an application today)

b) There shouldn't be a limit, however 'older' devices may take longer to be recognised than more recent devices.

Many thanks,

Chris at Flashbay
Chris , Flashbay | 26 Oct, 2016
Hi Ali,

An interesting question!

The USB Flash Drive just needs to be kept in a cool, dry place. Without too exposure to heat. 
If it's a high-quality Flash Drive (like our models) it will last for well over 10 years. 

Regarding the seal... It depends where you're burying it! 

Many thanks,

Rod Fielding | 26 Oct, 2016
RE: the message below:
Thanks, Chris...
You're right about the registry. I can see entries there for drives that were used once (ages ago) and then passed on to other users. So there's no need for the info to be stored/retained on my machine. I wondered if it might slow down my PC eventually when there are details stored for 50 or 100 long-gone flash drives.
Thanks for offering to send me that helpful application. I look forward to seeing that.

Hi Rod, Thanks for your question. a) This information is stored in the registry, usually in the key HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINESYSTEMCurrentControlSetEnumUSBSTOR Also, applications exist which can show you a listing of every USB drive ever connected to the computer (I will directly email you an example of an application today) b) There shouldn't be a limit, however 'older' devices may take longer to be recognised than more recent devices. Many thanks, Chris at Flashbay
Tomo | 03 Nov, 2016
Would it be wise to use flash stick instead of a external hard drive for storing game's on,meaning that it will be used a lot (will this cause degradation faster if I play games stored on it a lot).
Brent | 23 Dec, 2016
I use the drive for a router and I am consistently writing log files to the drive. Does anyone really know what the max write limit for a USB drive is? Unfortunately, I really don't have any other option other than small USB hard drive that I can attach to the router.
Ketchup | 07 Jan, 2017

i have a question. I made lately my first use of a USB flash drive. i know we are in 2017 now and i know i am slow ^^. i've put videos on my 32GB flash drive to see them in my new 43' Plasma TV  equipped with an USB plug... I want to know if i always need to unplug it from the TV or i can let it in for a week or 2 ?
Do i need to unplug it each time i am not watching the videos ?
Rod | 07 Jan, 2017
Leaving the USB flash drive plugged into the TV won't do it any harm at all - you can leave it there for months (with no ill effects) if you wish. Your TV might pester you with messages every time you switch the set on (to ask if you want to access the drive) but that's not really a problem.
If you're looking for more to watch - you can get recent-release films on USB drives, try a search on eBay for MP4 movies on flash drive - or something like: USB-Flash-Drive-with-Free-Movies-Recent-Films-MP4
Ketchup | 07 Jan, 2017

Thanks you alot for your quick answer.
thanks you.
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